A Quick Tutorial On How To Make References In A Research Paper In The APA Format


APA simply refers to the conventions and rules that have been established by the American Psychological Association for formatting and documenting the sources used in a research paper. It requires both reference list and in-text citations as well. They are correlated. That is, each in-text citation should have a full citation in the reference list. For examples of sources in APA styles and formats, contact this company.


Reference citations in text.


When using the APA style, in-text citations should be placed within paragraphs and sentences. This should make it clear what information is being paraphrased or quoted and also whose information is being cited. This is done differently depending on the number of authors.


Works done by one author


Insert the author’s last name as well as the publication year at the right point of the text.

In case the date and author’s name appear to be part of narrative, the missing information should be cited in parentheses.


Works done by many authors


In case it has 2 authors, you need to cite the two names every time you make the reference in your text. If it is in some parenthetical material, ensure that you join the two names using an ampersand. (&) Things to note,


  • Join the two names with “and,” in the narrative text
  • Cite all the authors the first moment you make reference to a work that has more than three authors.
  • In the subsequent citations, only include the first author’s surname. Follow It up with “et al,” which means “and others.” Then write the publication year.

Works done by associations, government agencies, corporations, etc.


Any time corporate authors have to be written out; they should appear in the text reference. If appropriate, spell out some of the corporate authors names in the first reference. They are then abbreviated in other subsequent citations.


Works that have no authors


As your text reference, use the first 2 or 3 words of a work’s title that has no author. Omit the initial articles. Capitalize the first letter of each word. If this refers to a book chapter, an article or a webpage, place it in quotation.

Authors who are anonymous are supposed to be listed as anonymous, a comma, as well as the date should follow.


Sources-specific parts


Include page, chapter, etc in when citing inside the text.


Reference list


  • The entries have to be put in an alphabetical order using the author’s last names.
  • Ensure that you capitalize the subtitle’s first word or title as well as any other proper names in the title.
  • To allocate page numbers, use the abbreviation “p” or “pp”
  • Form the hanging indent
  • Use italics rather than underlining